Chris Gee
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis – Projected Patterns

Warning, this blog isn’t for the faint hearted!

The definition of Projected patterns is a result from the ejection of blood under pressure. These stains are normally found where an artery has been punctured and the subject has moved around the scene. They are a good sight for a CSI, but a bad one as a human, as you then realise someone may have been seriously injured. I see these patterns more often at stabbing and serious assault scenes than your typical high street scuffle.

During a training course we carried out some exercises so we could see what Projected patterns looked like on various surfaces, both vertically and horizontally. We used a syringe and ejected the blood onto the different surface types. On a smooth wall they look rather nasty; blood will often run down the wall following gravity, leaving a rather sinister look.

Blood was ejected onto both carpet and paper. Where the carpet is more absorbent the pattern is more contained than on paper, where ‘spines’ and ‘satellite stains’ were found (refer to previous blog).

The biggest difference between the horizontal and vertical surfaces is the lack of those sinister flow patterns running down the wall, which are obviously not seen on the floor. However you still can see a fine line of blood in both, and this is how I notice these patterns on each surface.

Further to my previous blog where blood was found in a kitchen, the assault between the two males then continued upstairs in a bedroom. Blood was found on the carpet which appeared consistent with a Projected pattern, especially in the bottom right corner of the image where the blood loops around. This suggests that someone was suffering with a nasty incision/laceration which likely hit an artery whilst in the room.

These patterns can sometimes give you an idea of the direction of travel the depositor is going. By gaining information from the hospital, or sadly the mortuary, regarding the injuries sustained can help piece together bloodstains at the scene. For example, if a victim has sustained injuries to an artery on their right side, blood would have a higher chance of being deposited to their right. If you were looking down a hallway and a Projected blood pattern was on your right, the depositor was likely walking down the hallway (away from you).

Projected patterns are one of many different blood patterns I found at this assault scene. I aim to continue writing about different patterns I found. Stay tuned!   

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis - Drip Patterns

Drip patterns and Passive bloodstains have been of high importance to me in recent months, as they have provided some excellent intelligence on the movements of offenders within crime scenes. ‘Drip Pattern’ is the classification given to a certain bloodstain, a pattern resulting from a liquid that dripped into another liquid (one of which is blood). The most common pattern I find is blood into blood! 

To give you an idea of what a drip pattern looks like, here is an example of a single drop of blood.


Now here’s an image of what happens when many blood drops fall in and around the same area.


Notice that this creates smaller blood drops, known as ‘Satellite Stains’. If you look really closely, you may be able to see ‘Spines’ which are sharp lines of blood connected to the original spot. Think of a hedgehog, you have a round ball with spikes stemming away from it.

Now how can this be of importance at a crime scene? Well, this type of pattern is classified under the Passive category, meaning that these stains are gravity induced. As such, this would suggest that the blood is likely to belong to the person stood stationary above it, unless the scene is telling you otherwise.

Let me give you a real life example. An assault took place in a house where two people fought each other. Both sustained bleeding injuries. After the initial scuffle both men went to different rooms in the house; one to his bedroom and one into the kitchen.

Below is a picture of the kitchen.


A drawer was slightly open, with blood on the drawer, worksurface and floor.


Most of the blood on the kitchen drawer appeared to be Contact stains, where a blood bearing surface had come into contact with another surface. As both parties had bled, it would be more difficult to say who was at the kitchen drawer by the Contact Transfer blood. Eg. if an offender had the victim’s blood on their hands, the victim’s blood would be on the drawer but the victim would not be present there.

Below the drawer on the kitchen floor was this blood pattern.


These blood drops are similar to a Drip Pattern, where blood drops have fallen close together. This would suggest that the subject was stood stationary at this location as blood fell from their person. When blood reaches a certain volume (around 0.08ml) it will form blood drops. These drops are more likely to belong to the person stood at the kitchen drawer than the stains on the drawer itself. 

This blood was swabbed on the kitchen floor and identified a male which fitted with witness statements and injuries. This blood helped the case become an Attempted Murder rather than a Grevious Bodily Harm, as it showed there was pre-meditation to harm someone by retrieving a knife away from the area of initial assault.

All photographs taken by myself. Credit to Bevel & Gardner, and the Netherlands Forensic Institute for the knowledge they’ve given me.


How people dress at crimes scenes on British crime shows


How people dress at crime scenes on American crime shows


One is slightly more accurate!

Stand Down

Sometimes in this job you’re faced with tough, hard hitting scenes that can be a burden on your emotions for a few days. Other times, they can be a right laugh! Here’s a job that initially looked like a distressing scene, turned into nothing but humour.

I believe it’s common practice for new build developers to hire Archaeologists; make sure new homes aren’t being placed on any historic memorabilia, unstable ground, spaceships etc. In a large, open desert of flat mud, two of these Archaeologists made a discovery that at first was quite disturbing, and prompted a fast response from police. They claimed to have discovered bones belonging to a small infant human. Alarm bells rang, two specialists had found bones to a small child? This could turn into a massive case, as potentially an unforgivable crime had been committed.

My manager and I turned up to the scene, greeting a Detective Sergeant, Detective Constable, scene guards and the two Archaeologist. We all waited in anticipation for the Forensic Archaeologist to turn up. I prepared my camera to record the scene under her direction. When she did arrive, she gathered her equipment and began carefully dusting away the soil from around the bones.

She worked the dirt away for a few minutes before turning to us with a smile. She then uttered the words,

“It’s a cat.”

The faces of the two building Archaeologist’s dropped, like they’d smelt a bad smell, and hardly spoke a word after that announcement. The Detective Sergeant then joked,

“At least it wasn’t a KFC bargain bucket.”

It’s never nice having your time wasted, but we were all relieved no infants were harmed.    

CSI’s in pursuit of Drink Drivers - #DrinkORDrive

We may not have the quickest of vehicles, blue flashing lights, or training in fast paced vehicle manoeuvres, but CSI’s will help chase those who decide to get behind the wheel after a few drinks. Sometimes linking a stolen motor vehicle to a suspect can be challenging, but what happens when the suspect is the owner of the vehicle? How might we link such a person to committing a crime like drink driving in their own vehicle? This blog is a demonstration of how I identified the driver of a vehicle after it had crashed and been abandoned.

CSI’s should always keep an open mind. If a vehicle has been reported stolen after the accident it could be a genuine claim. The car may have been stolen without the owners knowledge, and the crash could come before the owners first phone call to us. It has also been known for drink drivers to report their vehicle stolen after they’ve suffered an RTC (Road Traffic Collision). The cheesy phrase ‘follow the evidence’ may make me snigger when watching TV programmes, but it has some truth. CSI’s should document and record the evidence in front of them without any bias.

The vehicle I was tasked to examine had hit a few other cars until it finally collided with a brick wall. The driver was seen to flee by witnesses. My first task was to photograph and document my findings. One thing I will always do is comment on the appearance of the car, and play close attention to any forced entry (or lack of). In this case no forced entry or evidence of hotwiring were found.

The windscreen had significant cracks across it and during my visual examination I noticed hair caught in the cracks of glass, likely as a result of someone striking their head against it (also a great advert for seatbelts).

Due to the location and amount of hairs, this would hopefully prove to be strong evidence for the investigation. I collected and packaged these hairs in order for a DNA submission.

My visual examination continued and I located a stain on the drivers seatbelt which I tested for blood. The result showed a positive indication for blood and the stain was swabbed. The stain is located directly below the arrow, the number 4 relates to my sequence of exhibit numbers.

After my examination I returned to the office with a choice. One exhibit was to be sent off for DNA comparison between the hairs and the blood. This would save the force some money by only sending one item, with the potential for a second submission in the future. I submitted the hairs as this would be harder to challenge in interview and court. The blood could be challenged if it proved to be the owner of the vehicle’s. Without the ability to age blood the owner could say this is historic, and they cut themselves previously. The hair would be harder to challenge either by the owner of the car or a thief.

The results from the hair analysis identified a male with access to the vehicle, so we weren’t looking at a SMV (Stolen Motor Vehicle) crime. Instead the hairs helped prove the man was responsible for crashing the car.

More sensitive forensic work can be done, especially if an air bag has deployed. Air bags shouldn’t be handled by anyone other than the person striking it in a collision. In this case, no air bag deployed.

I hope this has opened your eyes before you get behind the wheel feeling rather tipsy. Thankfully no one was seriously hurt in this case, others haven’t been so lucky. Please challenge anyone you suspect of drink driving, you could save their life.

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training

Training exercise in body recovery #forensics #csi #training